The following health related information is intended to raise awareness levels, not to prescribe medical treatment or offer self-diagnosis. Responsible breeders should be aware and informed about a wide range of health concerns. For example, the dreaded diseases are those that can kill, cripple, and cause early death or blindness. One such dreaded disease is Bloat which affects many breeds and has a lifetime likelihood of 24% in large-breed show dogs and 21.6% in giant-breed show dogs. Other studies show the mortality rate from 10% to 33%. The high incidence of this disease coupled with a high mortality rate makes it a dreaded disease. Bell reported that Great Danes have the highest average life time risk at 42.4%. Other health related articles include the risks for other disorders. The Long-Term Health Risks Associated with Spay/Neuter has more than 50 peer-reviewed papers which assess the health issues of spay & neutered dogs and the many risks.